CIAO Responds to the Terrorist Attacks against the United States
Major Multilateral and Regional Conventions, Treaties and Documents Concerning Terrorism

UN Resolutions

UN Security Council 1373 — Steps to Combat Terrorism

UN Security Council 1368 — On September 11 Attacks

UN General Assembly 56/1 — On September 11 Attacks

UN Resolution 1267 — Sanctions Against Taliban

UN Resolution 1333 — Sanctions Against Taliban

Documents Related to Nuclear Weapons and Terrorism
Russia's Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons
from Military Review by Dr. Jacob W. Kipp,
Foreign Military Studies Office, Fort Leavenworth, KS

The Future of Tactical Nuclear Weapons
from Aerospace Power Chronicles by William Conrad

Nuclear Terrorism and Countermeasures
House of Representatives Committee on National Security
Military Research and Development Subcommittee
Washington, DC, Wednesday, October 1, 1997

Nuclear Terrorism: How Real Is The Threat?
by A. Schmid, International Atomic Energy Agency

Terrorism Considerations in the Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste
Nuclear Waste Project Office, State of Nevada

Acquisition of Technology Relating to Weapons of Mass Destruction and Advanced Conventional Munitions, 1 July Through 31 December 2000
Unclassified Report to Congress from the Director of Central Intelligence, September 2001

Proliferation: Threat and Response 2001
U.S. Department of Defense

Documents About Biological Agents

Smallpox: Clinical and Epidemiologic Features
From the Centers for Disease Control by D. A. Henderson
Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies
Baltimore, Maryland, USA

Defending Against Invisible Killers — Biological Agents
On biological and chemical agents from the Department of Defense

Facts about Anthrax
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Documents on Combating Terrorism

Combating Terrorism: Chemical and Biological Medical Supplies Are Poorly Managed

Comment on H.R. 525 to Create a President's Council on Domestic
Terrorism Preparedness

Combating Terrorism: Issues in Managing Counterterrorist Programs

Homeland Security: A Framework for Addressing the Nation's Efforts

Combating Terrorism: Selected Challenges and Related Recommendations

Combating Terrorism: Action Taken but Considerable Risks Remain for
Forces Overseas

Combating Terrorism: How Five Foreign Countries Are Organized to Combat Terrorism

European Parliament Report on the existence of a global system for the interception of private and commercial communications (ECHELON interception system
11 July 2001

FBI Press Room: Congressional Statement — Carnivore Diagnostic Tool

United Nations Suppression of Terrorism Regulations — Administrative Consolidation
from the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions, Canada

Convention of the Organization of the Islamic Conference on Combating International Terrorism Adopted at Ouagadougou
July 1999

International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism
December 1999
The convention, adopted unanimously by the UN General Assembly on December 9, 1999, will expand the legal framework for international cooperation in the investigation, arrest, prosecution, and extradition of persons who engage in terrorist financing.

The Arab Convention For The Suppression Of Terrorism
Adopted by the Council of Arab Ministers of the Interior and the Council of Arab Ministers of Justice Cairo, April 1998
Arab Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism, signed at a meeting held at the General Secretariat of the League of Arab States in Cairo on 22 April 1998. (Deposited with the Secretary-General of the League of Arab States)

World Islamic Front Statement Urging Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders
February 23, 1998

International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings
November 1997
In essence, this convention imposes binding legal obligations upon States Parties either to submit for prosecution or to extradite any person within their jurisdiction who commits an offense as defined in Article 2, attempts to commit such an act, participates as an accomplice, organizes or directs others to commit such an offense, or in any other way contributes to the commission of an offense by a group of persons acting with a common purpose.

G-7 Declaration on Terrorism
June 1996
The G-7/P-8 indicate that the world's industrialized nations plus Russia (the P-8) will seek action by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in negotiating and adopting uniform strict international standards for airport bomb detection and heightened security measures at airports. In view of terrorist attacks on air, rail, subway, and bus transport systems, the Eight also agreed to the following other U.S. proposals to help prevent and solve terrorist crimes: "Explosive identification: The Eight will work together and urge nations to cooperate to track more closely the manufacture, sale, transport, and resale of explosives to keep them out of terrorists' hands, as well as to tag explosives in order to speed up investigations. The United States will share with other nations ongoing research and regulations we are developing."

Summit of Peacemakers, Sharm el-Sheikh, Final Statement
March 1996
Following the Sharm el-Sheikh summit, President Clinton and then-Israeli Prime Minister Peres signed an agreement in which the United States and Israel agreed to cooperate on a range of counter-terrorism efforts. That agreement called for the formation of a joint counter-terrorism group, which will bring together policymakers and experts to consider practical steps to formalize cooperation.

Ottawa Ministerial Declaration on Countering Terrorism
December 1995
Canada agreed to host a Ministerial meeting on terrorism. That meeting was held in Ottawa on December 12, 1995, with the participation of all P8 nations — France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States — as well as representation from the European Union presidency (Spain). The Ministerial approved the Ottawa Declaration, which contained the following Guidelines for Action against international terrorism.

Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives for the Purpose of Identification
March 1991
This provides for chemical marking to facilitate detection of plastic explosives and is designed to control and limit the used of unmarked and undetectable plastic explosives (negotiated in the aftermath of the 1988 Pan Am 103 bombing); parties are obligated in their respective territories to ensure effective control over "unmarked" plastic explosive, i.e., those that do not contain one of the detection agents described in the Technical Annex to the treaty; generally speaking, each party must, among other things: take necessary and effective measures to prohibit and prevent the manufacture of unmarked plastic explosives; prevent the movement of unmarked plastic explosives into or out of its territory; exercise strict and effective control over possession and transfer of unmarked explosives made or imported prior to the entry-into-force of the convention; ensure that all stocks of such unmarked explosives not held by the military or police are destroyed or consumed, marked, or rendered permanently ineffective within three years; take necessary measures to ensure that unmarked plastic explosives held by the military or police, are destroyed or consumed, marked, or rendered permanently ineffective within fifteen years; and, ensure the destruction, as soon as possible, of any unmarked explosives manufactured after the date-of-entry into force of the convention for that state.

Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Maritime Navigation
March 1988
These apply to terrorist attacks on ships and on fixed offshore platforms and establishes a legal regime applicable to acts against international maritime navigation that is similar to the regimes established against international aviation; makes it an offence for a person unlawfully and intentionally to seize or exercise control over a ship by force, threat, or intimidation; to perform an act of violence against a person on board a ship if that act is likely to endanger the safe navigation of the ship; to place a destructive device or substance aboard a ship; and other acts against the safety of ships.

Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of Violence at Airports Serving International Civil Aviation
February 1988
This extends and supplements Montreal Convention on air safety and extends the provisions of the Montreal Convention to encompass terrorist acts at airports serving international civil aviation.

SAARC Regional Convention on Suppression of Terrorism Signed at Kathmandu
November 1987

Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material
March 1980
This agreement is primarily concerned with the physical protection of nuclear material against theft and sabotage. It evolved from a draft convention prepared by the IAEA. It was opened for signature in 1980 and entered into force in 1987. The main focus is on international transport, but several provisions deal with material in domestic use, storage and transport. Parties to the convention also bind themselves to assist non-signatory states in protecting nuclear material, and the principle is established of 'no sanctuary' for criminal offenders.

International Convention Against the Taking of Hostages
December 1979
Provides that "any person who seizes or detains and threatens to kill, to injure, or to continue to detain another person in order to compel a third party, namely, a State, an international intergovernmental organization, a natural or juridical person, or a group of persons, to do or abstain from doing any act as an explicit or implicit condition for the release of the hostage commits the offence of taking of hostage within the meaning of this Convention."

European Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism Concluded at Strasbourg
January 1977

Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (BTWC) with BTWC Parties and Signatories (in chronological order)
March 1975
The Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) was negotiated in the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva. It was opened for signature on 10 April 1972 and entered into force on 26 March 1975. The Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) prohibits the production and stockpiling of biological and toxin weapons; proliferation in the area of biological and toxin warfare continues to be seen as a security problem.

Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons
December 1973
Defines internationally protected person as a Head of State, a Minister for Foreign Affairs, a representative or official of a state or of an international organization who is entitled to special protection from attack under international law; requires each party to criminalize and make punishable "by appropriate penalties which take into account their grave nature," the intentional murder, kidnapping, or other attack upon the person or liberty of an internationally protected person, a violent attack upon the official premises, the private accommodations, or the means of transport of such person; a threat or attempt to commit such an attack; and an act "constituting participation as an accomplice"

Convention to Prevent and Punish Acts of Terrorism Taking the Form of Crimes against Persons and Related Extortion that are of International Significance Concluded at Washington, D.C. February 1971

Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation
September 1971
This applies to acts of aviation sabotage, such as bombings aboard aircraft in flight. It makes it an offence for any person unlawfully and intentionally to perform an act of violence against a person on board an aircraft in flight, if that act is likely to endanger the safety of that aircraft; to place an explosive device on an aircraft; and to attempt such acts or be an accomplice of a person who performs or attempts to perform such acts; requires parties to the convention to make offences punishable by "severe penalties"; requires parties that have custody of offenders to either extradite the offender or submit the case for prosecution.

Convention for the suppression of unlawful seizure of aircraft (Hague Convention)
December 1970
This applies to hijackings, making it an offence for any person on board an aircraft in flight [to] "unlawfully, by force or threat thereof, or any other form of intimidation, [to] seize or exercise control of that aircraft" or to attempt to do so; requires parties to the convention to make hijackings punishable by "severe penalties"; requires parties that have custody of offenders to either extradite the offender or submit the case for prosecution; requires parties to assist each other in connection with criminal proceedings brought under the convention.

Convention on offenses and certain other acts committed on board aircraft (Tokyo Convention)
September 1963
This convention: Applies to acts affecting in-flight safety; authorizes the aircraft commander to impose reasonable measures, including restraint, on any person he or she has reason to believe has committed or is about to commit such an act, when necessary to protect the safety of the aircraft; requires contracting states to take custody of offenders and to return control of the aircraft to the lawful commander.

UK Report on Responsibility for the September 11 Terrorist Attacks
issued by the Office of the Prime Minister, October 4, 2001

Outside View: Blowback
by Thomas H. Lipscomb, Special to UPI

After the Attacks
The OECD's chief economist, Ignazio Visco, gives his views on the outlook of the world economy in an interview with the OECD Observer.

Documents about Afghanistan

Protocol for the Supression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Fixed Platforms Located on the Continental Shelf
March 1988

CIA Factbook on Afghanistan

Artillery and Counterinsurgency: The Soviet Experience in Afghanistan
by Lester W. Grau
United States Army, Foreign Military Studies Office

The Soviet War in Afghanistan: History and Harbinger of Future War?by General (Ret) Mohammad Yahya Nawroz, Army of Afghanistan
and Lester W. Grau
United States Army, Foreign Military Studies Office

Maps of Afghanistan
Afghanistan (Shaded Relief) 1993

Pakistan - Afghanistan Border ("Pushtunistan") 1988

Afghanistan: Ethnolinguistic Groups 1997

Afghanistan (Small Map) 2001

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