Columbia International Affairs Online: Working Papers

CIAO DATE: 04/2013

Iran's Nuclear Odyssey: Costs and Risks

Ali Vaez, Karim Sadjadpour

April 2013

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace


Iran’s half-century nuclear odyssey has been marked by enormous financial costs, unpredictable risks, and unclear motivations. The program’s covert history, coupled with the Iranian government’s prohibition of open media coverage of the nuclear issue, has prevented a much-needed internal debate about its cost-benefit rationale. Critical questions about the program’s economic efficacy and safety have been left unanswered.