International Spectator

The International Spectator

Volume XXXIV No. 4 (October-December 1999)


IAI Library Notes
By Maritza Cricorian


Citizenship and identity in Europe / edited by Leslie Holmes and Philomena Murray. - Aldershot : Ashgate, c1999. - xii, 167 p. - ISBN 1-84014-002-X


The enlargement of Europe / Stuart Croft... [et al.]. - Manchester and New York : Manchester University Press, c1999. - XVI, 188 p. - ISBN 0-7190-4971-7 (pbk)


The rebirth of Europe / Elizabeth Pond. - Washington D.C. : Brookings Institution Press, c1999. - xiv, 290 p. - ISBN 0-8157-7157-6


Theory and reform in the European Union / Dimitris N. Chryssochoou... [et al.]. - Manchester and New York : Manchester University Press, c1999. - xiv, 174 p. - (Europe in change). - ISBN 0-7190-4991-1

Four books by different authors sharing the same focus: diverse aspects of European integration.

By the same editors as Europe: rethinking the boundaries (see The International Spectator, no. 3/99), the first essentially presents the results of a conference held by the Contemporary European Studies Association of Australia (CESAA) in 1994 and updated by the authors in late 1997. Consisting of eight chapters, each with a different approach, it investigates the concept of citizenship and its implications: the first two chapters following the introduction deal with the legal and political aspects of European citizenship introduced by the Maastricht Treaty; the fourth relates the models of European democracy to problems of immigration; the fifth and sixth analyse structural inequalities between the sexes and the socio-political implications of divorce for women; the seventh examines factors of social exclusion in post-communist European countries; and finally the eighth questions the current usefulness of a “non-national” identity, such as the Yugoslav identity.

The focus of the second book, which is part of a series of "research-based" political analyses set forth in a "reader friendly" style and destined for the broader public, are the five major Western European organisations: the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the Council of Europe, the European Union (EU), the Western European Union (WEU) and NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation). Following an initial chapter introducing the concepts of Europe, institutions and enlargement as used in the text, the volume goes on to analyse in detail the enlargement process of the five organisations considered, one per chapter, demonstrating that there is no "overarching vision" of the process and that the past lessons of these organisations cannot be adapted to the changed current conditions. The concluding chapter deals with the main problems inherent in European enlargement, evidencing two views: one of an all-inclusive Europe, including Russia, the standards and behavioural norms of which are accepted throughout the continent; and another involving an about-face on enlargement to the east, at least for NATO if not for the EU, with the consequent formation of an area of permanent instability.
The book by Pond, a well known American journalist, retraces the recent history of European integration, that is, "the rebirth of Europe", with particular reference to Germany and Poland, the main protagonists of the processes of deepening and widening, respectively. Going back over the events of the European Community from the end of the Cold War to today (approximately 1989-99), it sheds light upon the political implications of European Monetary Union for transatlantic relations.
The fourth and last book is part of a series "Europe in change", dedicated to the multi-disciplinary study of the changes that have taken place in Europe since 1989. In particular, Theory and reform in the European Union investigates whether and how the theories of regional integration and constitutional reform applied to post-1989 events can help to predict the future of European integration. After providing a general picture of the formation of these theories since the beginning of the integration process up to the most recent trends (chaps. 1 and 2), the book analyses the policies pursued at the 1996/97 intergovernmental conference and the outcome of the Maastricht Treaty (chap. 3); the concept of new order and the security and defence policies in the post-Cold War Europe (chap. 4); the institutional responses to the new defence "security architecture" (chap. 5); the prospects opened up by the European Commission’s Agenda 2000 (chap. 6).

The competitive advantage of nations: the case of Turkey : assessing Porter's framework for national advantage / zlem z. - Aldershot : Ashgate, c1999. - xii, 214 p. - ISBN 1-84014-982-5
In this essay, principally targeting the academic world, Michael Porter’s model of studying the sources of international competitive advantage, the so-called diamond framework, is applied to Turkey, thus extending application to a developing countries and an unsuccessful case. It thereby provides an opportunity to assess the Turkish economy and the international competitiveness of its industry. Indeed, in the book emphasis is put on five Turkish industry case studies (respectively, glass, construction, leather clothes, automobiles and flat steel industries) which constitute chapters three to seven. The other chapters introduce Porter’s theory with a review of the academic debate on the subject (chap. 1), give an overview of the Turkish economy and an analysis of trade data (chap. 2) and, finally, summarise and conclude the study (chap. 8).

Ethnic conflicts and civil society : proposals for a new era in Eastern Europe / edited by Andreas Klinke, Ortwin Renn, Jean-Paul Lehners. - Aldershot : Ashgate, c1997. - XVI, 283 p. - ISBN 1-84014-455-6 (hbk)
Ethnicity and intra-state conflict / edited by Hkan Wiberg, Christian P.Scherrer. - Aldershot : Ashgate, c1999. - x, 327 p. - ISBN 1-84014-713-X
Two works on ethnic conflicts by the same publisher. The first is the result of a workshop organised in Luxembourg by Clark University, the Centre Universitaire of Luxembourg and the Center of Technology Assessment of Stuttgart, with the aim of providing ideas, proposals and models for dealing with the problem. Aside from the introduction, the book basically follows the three-part breakdown of the symposium: the first studies the causes of this kind of conflict; the second focuses on the experience of some central and eastern European countries, particularly the former Yugoslavia; and the third analyses two positive role models: Switzerland and the United States. A final part summarises the working and proposals of the conference.
The second book, also partially the product of a symposium organised in May 1977 as part of a research project by the Copenhagen Peace Research Institute (COPRI), deals with intra-state wars.
The first part describes some behavioural aspects of the problem, concentrating in particular on the concept of war and the typologies of mass conflicts as defined by more or less restrictive criteria.
The second analyses some specific questions such as the relationship between territoriality and violent conflict (chap. 4), aspects of economic development and environmental change and scarcity (chap. 5), the politicisation of ethnicity (chap. 6), and the relationship between ethnicity and territory (chap. 7).
The third part studies means of peacemaking, starting out with generalisations and moving toward concrete proposals: chapter 8 analyses the process of escalation and the timing of conflict management, chapter 9 deals with democratisation processes, and chapter 10 with third party intervention.
The fourth and final part gives some case studies: the Israeli-Palestinian conflict as an "identity conflict", the roots of Russian nationalism and its variants, the conflicts in the Caucasus region and those in Sub-Saharan Africa.

The European Union and Turkey: an anchor/credibility dilemma / Mehmet Ugur. - Aldershot : Ashgate, c1999. - xviii, 286 p. - ISBN 1-84014-443-2
An essay on Europe-Turkey relations since the 1970s, with particular emphasis on the decision-making processes and state-society interactions within each of the two actors.
In particular, the text focuses on what the author defines as the anchor/credibility dilemma, that is, on the Turkey’s opposing trends to 1) anchor its convergence on European (EU) standards, on the one hand, and 2) deviate frequently from the political reforms required by convergence on the other. The European Union’s low capacity for anchoring translates into a greater probability of political upheaval in Turkey, which would in turn trigger even more reluctance on the part of the Union to anchor Turkey.
The continuation of this contrast and its consequences is due, in the author’s opinion, to the inability of the two sides to learn from their errors. Thus, the first condition set by Mehmet Ugur for solution of the dilemma is to learn from the past; the second is to reduce discretionality in interpreting and applying the contractual obligations regulating Turkey-EU relations.
After an introductory analysis of the problem (chaps. 1-3), chapters 4-7 provide details of anchor/credibility dilemmas applied to some specific policy sectors (trade, free circulation of labour, human rights, Cyprus).

The G7/G8 system : evolution, role and documentation / Peter I. Hajnal; with a contribution by Sian Meikle. - Aldershot : Ashgate, c1999. - xvi, 197 p. - ISBN 1-84014-776-8
The G8's role in the new millennium / edited by Michael R. Hodges, John J. Kirton, Joseph P. Daniels. - Aldershot : Ashgate, c1999. - xvi, 191 p. - ISBN 1-84014-774-1
These two books inaugurate a new series dedicated, as the title indicates, to questions of "The G8 and global governance".
The first, in part resulting from the work done by the University of Toronto G7/8 Research Group, performs the meritorious job of providing a guide/manual on the G7 and a vast bibliography including electronic sources. The book’s twelve chapters preceding this bibliography deal with subjects such as: origin, role and probable reform of the institution; the summits from 1975 to 1998 (Birmingham); membership , especially that of Russia; the G7/8 system and its external relations; summit agendas and results; documentation and its evaluation.
The second volume is essentially the product of conferences held in 1998, prior to the Birmingham summit, on the efficacy of the G7/8 institution, as seen from various points of view and disciplines and offering topics for debate and proposals for reform. The essay is divided into three parts: the first contains four contributions assessing the recent performance of the institution; the second analyses the problem in relation to the financial aspects introduced by globalisation; the third and last deals with the new priorities confronting the G8, such as foreign direct investment, unemployment, and transnational financial crime. The conclusions are generally optimistic: the G8 could effectively guide global governance in the new millennium.

Mediatori in armi : l'allargamento della NATO e la politica USA in Europa / Roberto Menotti. - Milano : Guerini e associati, c1999. - 228 p. - (Frontiere). - ISBN 88-7802-996-3
This book reconstructs the evolution of the Atlantic Alliance, from its formation in 1949 to the military offensive in Serbia in 1999. The first of the four chapters presents the institution, its origins, role, and raison d’tre; the second retraces the process of enlargement to the east; the third goes over the distinctive characteristics of American policy at the end of the century; and the fourth identifies the implications of the most recent NATO choices on transatlantic relations and for Italy’s fundamental interests.
Euro-American relations are viewed in the perspective of evolving US policies, interests and perceptions in the post-Cold War environment, that is, in a turbulent and often confusing world in which NATO remains, for a host of reasons, a cornerstone.

The new agenda for peace research / edited by Ho-Won Jeong. - Aldershot : Ashgate, c1999. - xvi, 365 p. - ISBN 1-84014-082-8
This book offers a definition of and an update on the inter-discipline of peace research, combining theoretical developments with concrete strategies for peace. Critically assessing past theories and practice, the authors propose a new agenda for peace research. In four parts and fifteen chapters, they deal with such subjects as the toolbox for peace; the relations among identity, globality and war; the multifarious sources of violent conflict and the strategies for dealing with them; peacekeeping and methods for conflict resolution; prevention policies; minority rights protection; environmental conflict; "post-development", encouraging a non-violent culture; satisfying fundamental human needs; the birth of a regional civil society; and vertical polarisation of the global system. All in preparation for the structural changes under way.

Revolutionary Iran : civil society in the modernization process / Masoud Kamali. - Aldershot : Ashgate, c1998. - xx, 318 p. - ISBN 1-84014-449-1.
This historical-sociological work reveals the cultural roots of the two main revolutionary events that took place in Iran in the 20th Century – the Constitutional Revolution (1905-09) and the Islamic Revolution (1977-79) – seen from the perspective of a man who was not just a passive onlooker.
In this analysis, the author applies the concept of civil society, taken to mean the aggregate of communities and institutions rather than the citizens/individuals and their associations, to Islamic Iran, and studies the interaction between the various social components: the ulama, the bazari (traders and manufacturers in the bazaars) and the state, pointing out the role of marginal groups (urbanised emigrants) in radical movements.
Sources of information include traditional documentary material (books and journals), as well as interviews, photographs and personal experiences.

Russian national interests and the current crisis in Russia / Henry Trofimenko. - Aldershot : Ashgate, c1999. - viii, 324 p. - ISBN 1-84014-405-X
The aim of this study is to identify the real national interests of Russia rather than those of the present ruling class, whose main preoccupation, according to the author, seems to be to distribute power and wealth among its members and to avoid the brewing political and economic storm.
After an initial chapter introducing the concept of national interest for a multinational state like Russia, the next two chapters look into Russia’s fundamental interests (its federative nature and national security); the fifth examines Russian interests in three geopolitical areas: Europe, the Asia Pacific and the Middle East, including the central Asian republics in the latter category for the purposes of the study. Finally, the essay concludes with an analysis of Russian national interests vis--vis the United States.

Serbia under Milosevic : politics in the 1990s / Robert Thomas. - London : Hurst & Co., c1999. - xx, 443 p. - ISBN 1-85065-367-4 (pbk)
In this careful and detailed essay, the author explores the reasons why Serbia did not pass from totalitarianism to pluralism, examining the role played by nationalism and social/development differences in the nineties, and analysing the coexistence and cultural weight of two political languages used in the country: the modernist/rationalist and the neo-traditionalist/national.
He thus demonstrates that in Serbia, in contrast to other eastern European countries, a combination of (formal) democracy, authoritarianism and sultanism, that is, the influence of the ruler, Slobodan Milosevic, has de facto prevented the transition from totalitarianism to pluralism.
Among the factors impeding democratic development in Serbia are also the instrumentalisation of nationalism by the Milosevic regime and, at the same time, a lack of real national values in the face of various internal societal divisions: above all ethnic (e.g. Albanians vs. Serbs), but also cultural (e.g. Partisan/Cetnik vs. Socialist/anti-communist) and social (e.g. metropolitan vs. provincial, rural vs. urban, urban vs. migrant).
Finally, he points out the role of symbols and myths in Serb political life and language, albeit mixed with rationalist elements.
The thirty chapters retrace Serbian events from 1987 to April 1998.

Gli Stati Uniti e l'apertura a sinistra : importanza e limiti della presenza americana in Italia / Leopoldo Nuti. - Bari : Gius. Laterza & Figli, c1999. - XXIV, 729 p. - ISBN 88-420-5749-5
This weighty volume is the outcome of eight years of research carried out using a remarkable range of documentary sources, above all from the United States, largely consulted in situ.
It examines relations, first of all, between Italian domestic policy and international policy and, secondarily, between Italian foreign policy and domestic policy, highlighting how the US and the USSR confronted each other within Italy’s postwar political system and how Italian political parties and forces exploited the problems of foreign policy for their own domestic ends.
The work is divided into two parts, nine chapters in all (plus conclusions), which chronologically retrace a crucial period in Italian politics, ending with the formation of the government led by Aldo Moro in 1964, and confute the "myth of the omnipotence of the American presence in Italy". Maritza Cricorian is Chief Librarian at the IAI.