CIAO DATE: 07/04
Volume XXXIX, No. 1 (January — March 2004)
ESDP and the Structure of the World Power (PDF, 14 pages, 60.3 KB), by Barry R. Posen
Since the end of the Cold War, the theme of unipolarity or US hegemony has assumed increasing importance among foreign policy scholars and practitioners. The origin of the European Union Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) is generally traced to numerous factors including both high and low politics at the EU and national level. This essay argues that the timing, extent and pace of ESDP's recent progress is best explained as a general European reaction to the real world implications of the unusual relative power position of the United States. This is not quite balance-of-power politics, but a "kinder and gentler" version thereof. Over time, if ESDP develops and enjoys some practical successes, transatlantic relations will subtly change, as Europeans begin to feel more confident of their ability to manage their own security affairs.
US and EU Strategy Concepts: A Mirror for Partnership and Difference?, by Alyson J. K. Bailes
The differences in US and EU strategic visions that emerged during 2001-03 can be analysed in terms of underlying strategic interests; public opinion trends; or a comparison of the US' 2002 "National Security Strategy" and the EU Security Strategy document of 2003. All three approaches yield evidence that the exclusive, existential nature of US-Europe ties has weakened since the Cold War. Europe now has strategic "values" of its own, such as a multilateral and multi-functional approach, a preference to minimize and legitimize the use of force, and readiness to absorb past enemies. The new EU strategy makes the EU a more self-conscious and ambitious actor. Its effect on US-European cooperation will also depen
The US and the European Union: Bridging the Strategic Gap?, by Robert E. Hunter
The United States and European Union have each put forward a basic strategy regarding challenges facing the world: Washington's 2002 "National Security Strategy" and the EU's 2003 "A Secure European in a Better World". Despite the recent difficulties in the Atlantic Alliance, these documents are remarkably similar in identifying shared threats of terrorism, weapons of mass destruction, cross-border crime and "failed" states. They differ in what to do, with the US putting more emphasis on military solutions and the EU more on dealing with the causes of conflict, especially global terrorism. Both sides of the Atlantic, however, now have no choice but to work together, particularly in the Middle East, and with a renewed, central role for NATO.
ESDP and NATO: Assuring Complementarity , by F. Stephen Larrabee
How ESDP develops, whether as a complement or rival to NATO, will depend on both EU and US policy. Europe will also have to eschew efforts to develop the EU as a counterweight to the United States and create more deployable forces which can operate alongside US forces in a broad spectrum of contingencies. The United States needs to be willing to share responsibility genuinely with its European allies and take their views more seriously into consideration in formulating a more comprehensive global strategy which balances hard power with soft power and effective diplomacy. US and European defence transformation processes and priorities need to be closely harmonised. As ESDP proceeds, the US and Europe must ensure that it strengthens, rather than weakens, transatlantic relations.
The Reform of ESDP and EU-NATO Cooperation
by Rob de Wijk
Although the EU has taken over the former NATO operation in Macedonia and carried out an autonomous operation in Congo, there is still reluctance to take responsibility for more demanding tasks. Nevertheless, American unilateralism and the Iraq crisis have accelerated the formation of a consensus among the major players that a credible European foreign, security and defence policy is needed. With the Berlin Plus agreements, all necessary institutional arrangements are in place to carry out EU-led operations. At the same time, the survival of NATO depends largely on the development of credible European military capabilities. Since Europe's inefficient defence spending can only be overcome by European defence integration, the US should support rather than hinder further development of ESDP.
Overcoming Impediments to Transatlantic Armaments Collaboration
by Richard A. Bitzinger
Despite powerful military, political, and economic drivers, transatlantic armaments collaboration seems even more remote and problematic than ever. But while there exist many obstacles to expanded US-European arms collaboration - including the capabilities and spending gaps, and the "Fortress Europe/Fortress USA" mentalities - they are not as difficult to overcome as the lack of serious, sustained, and actionable resolve and commitment to the idea of such cooperation, especially on the part of critical, highly placed US actors in government and in industry. Until the United States is as ready as its European allies to globalise defence production, transatlantic armaments collaboration will always be a half-hearted and sporadic affair and will only further corrode an already strained transatlantic alliance.
Italian Foreign Policy Survey
The Fundamental Directions of Italy's Foreign Policy, by Franco Frattini
The Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs outlines Italy's interest in being part of an international order that can offer it prospects and guarantees. Active participation in a new era of multilateralism will involve reconciling its European aspirations with transatlantic coherence and a commitment to international organisations. In a manner that is continuous with its strategic alliances, Italy has worked out the fundamental operational options and directions that best interpret its interests and are most suited to its capabilities for intervention: these directions are the Balkans, the Mediterranean and, on a different plane, globalisation. But the new ambitions and responsibilities it aspires to also require discipline and rigour.
New Alliances, Governance of the International System and Italy's Foreign Policy Choices, by Paolo Guerrieri and Stefano Silvestri
Italy's international position is under strain, both politically and economically. Recent events and the absence of a stable framework of international solidarity have made it more difficult for Italy to reconcile its traditional dual anchorage in the transatlantic and European spheres. At the same time, the changes brought about by globalisation and the new information technologies are putting the Italian economy under pressure to broach reform to improve its international competitiveness. This policy-oriented article provides suggestions for action and a list of topics for further debate.
Book Reviews and Notes
IAI Library Notes , by Maritza Cricorian