CIAO DATE: 02/03
Volume XXXVII No. 2 (April–June 2002)
The War over the Israeli Settlements, by Giorgio Gomel
The territories which, after the 1967 war, were to be used as bargaining chips in exchange for recognition of Israel and peace have become places of permanent occupation to prevent the formation of a Palestinian state. Any agreement between Israel and the Palestinians, however partial and intermediate, in the form of a peace agreement or unilateral separation, will call for a solution of this thorny problem. Some kind of system of incentives must be devised to encourage a large portion of settlers to repatriate and to allow for the continued presence of the others in the territories in respect of Palestinian sovereignty. Purchasing the homes of the settlers and then handing them over to Palestinian refugees settling in the future state of Palestine could be a way.
Kosovo Futures, Western Dilemmas (PDF, 8 pages, 112 kbs) , by Daniel Nelson
To implement any peaceful future for Kosovo, a substantial and robust international military, police and civil assistance presence will be required for years. The article discusses the alternatives for Kosovo? future which, whether acceptable to ethnic Albanians or not, may lie along a statehood continuum from varieties of "non-state" options, through several "affiliated state" variations, leading to "full statehood."
The External and Internal Borders of the Great Europe, by Yves Mény
Democratic politics is the art of constructing divisions and borders that polarise opinions and choices. The thesis put forward in the article is that the ongoing Convention on the Future of Europe will have to sketch out five kinds of borders in the context of an enlarged and if possible stronger Union: complete the elimination of internal borders and, conversely, create external ones; establish the border between the powers of the Union and those of the member states; distinguish between a federal system (which the Union is not) and a confederal system (which the Union is no longer); define the (fluctuating and changing) border between democracy and the market and draw a border between internal and external affairs.
The Moscow Summit: The End of the Cold War's Long Funeral?, by Alexander Konovalov
The majority of Russian experts agree that the treaty signed in Moscow simply fixed the unilateral plans for strategic nuclear forces reorganisation that each party had at that time. But the Moscow summit can nevertheless be seen as the start of a new relationship between Russia and the United States based not only and not primarily on dialogue concerning arms control and strategic stability issues, but on a much wider basis that includes common values, priorities and goals.
Cultural Dialogue and Coalition-Building in a Globalised World, by Antonio Badini
The widespread condemnation of the 11 September attacks laid the foundations for a new international alignment against terrorism. But military power alone is not enough to eradicate this terrible plague from international society. An important test bed for the new consensus is the willingness of the great powers to reconcile the universality of certain principles and rules, such as democracy and the rule of law, with flexibility in dealing with realities that are rooted in centuries?old traditions, such as Islamic society. Of course, there are obligations for Arab governments as well: above all, to create regulatory frameworks that are compatible with the internationalisation of the economies and a system of government consistent with certain shared values. Progress has been made and more could follow if dialogue, even critical, were to replace condemnation and restrictive measures.
Coalition Dynamics in the War against Terrorism, by Ian Lesser
In the wake of 11 September, and especially in the US, there has been a natural tendency to see counter-terrorism as a new organising principle for strategy. Instead, the article argues that the question is not how to reorient policies to serve counter-terrorism ends, but rather the reverse: how can enhanced counter-terrorism cooperation be integrated in existing foreign and security policies, at the global and the regional level.
TEPSA Europe Forum
Why Enlarge the EU? A Look at the Macroeconomic Implications (PDF, 14 pages, 56 kbs) , by Lorenzo Bini Smaghi
The imminent enlargement is unprecedented, in terms of number of countries, population and area. It is also unprecedented in terms of the candidates?low ?conomic weight and per capita GDP. And a third difference with respect to previous enlargements is that the EU? political dimension is quite different from the past. The article examines the macroeconomic effects of enlargement, its effect on the EU budget, on financial stability and on Union institutions markets, summing up that, taken together, they make reform of EU governance urgent and indispensable.
The Potential Macroeconomic Impact of EU Enlargement (PDF, 14 pages, 136 kbs) , by Ludovica Rizzotti
While attention concerning EU enlargement was initially concentrated on the effects of potential trade deriving from the opening up of Eastern European countries to the international market, with the application for entry into the Union, recognition of candidate status, and the beginning of negotiations, the focus has turned to the effects of enlargement of the single market and the free movement of factors (labour and capital) and, more recently, to the financial costs of enlargement. The most recent studies indicate that the advantages are greater than those estimated a few years ago and will probably be sufficient to compensate the costs.
More Europe in Foreign and Security Policy: the Institutional Dimension of CFSP (PDF, 10 pages, 48 kbs) , by Marta Dassù and Antonio Missiroli
The European Union will have to improve its performance in CFSP if it aims to be taken seriously as an international actor. Fostering leadership along with commonality, and flexibility along with effectiveness seems the most appropriate way to try to do so. The article examines the current problems of CFSP and sets forth some specific suggestions going in the above direction.
Italian Foreign Policy Survey
This article provides a review and an assessment of the foreign policy of the second Berlusconi government, focusing primarily on the question of continuity in what have traditionally been the two pillars of Italian international action, namely the Atlantic Alliance and the EU. Its conclusion is that if the Berlusconi government has brought changes to Italian foreign policy, they concern its tone and style and not its substance. Accusations that Italy has embarked on a Europesceptic path are exaggerated. If the second Berlusconi government can be faulted for a number of things, so far at least, foreign policy is not one of them.
Upgrading Political Responses in the Mediterranean, by Roberto Aliboni
Euro-Mediterranean relations are hindered by the Arab? perception that existing institutions and organisations pursue security agendas that fail to encompass their problems, while seeking Arab cooperation to solve European problems. In addition, the continuation of the Israeli-Palestinian and Israeli-Arab conflicts puts a limit on any multilateral or collective cooperation between the West and the North African and Middle Eastern regions. While the institutions and organisations set up till now are helpful in supporting a possible peace process, they cannot be geared to conflict resolution tasks. Nevertheless, they can still provide for the implementation of broad cooperative security, securing a more or less important degree of security cooperation in the short term and paving the way for long-term changes and cooperation.
Seven Points on the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership, by Alvaro di Vasconcelos
The main goal of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (emp) is to expand the area of peace, democracy and development in the North-South direction through a process of inclusion. This means strengthening ties southwards without offering the prospect of integration and therefore without the equivalent financial means, but also without strong political conditionalities, a method that has been met with great success in Europe This should take place alongside structural economic and political reform, as well as mutual confidence-building and co-operation measures in the external and security policy domains. The article explores the challenge of making the multilateral holism of the EMP, the only multilateral Mediterranean framework in which a high-level dialogue involving both Israel and a significant number of Arab countries has been consistently pursued, compatible and mutually reinforcing with its more restricted sub-regional frameworks.
Book Reviews and Notes
A Tragic Future? (PDF, 4 pages, 13.5kbs) , by Filippo Andreatta
IAI Library Notes , by Maritza Cricorian